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The use of symbolic logic as a programming language has a history of not more than thirty years, but the study of the symbolic logic goes back to the work of Aristotle in the fourth century B. First Order Predicate Logic is a branch of symbolic logic that has evolved largely in the twentieth century. The history of logic programming started with symbolic logic, and then First Order Predicate Logic emerged from symbolic logic to form the base for Logic Programming. The history of logic programming can be classified into three eras.

## ISBN 13: 9783540132998

The first era was the era of the pioneers in founding a symbolic language. The real development of the symbolic logic occurred in the second era, where the third era is the era of transition from symbolic logic to logic programming. In each of the three eras many people contributed to the journey of developing Logic Programming, but we are going to mention only those who had deep influence on this development.

What is now known as traditional logic began at the time of Aristotle over 22 centuries ago. Aristotle work was assembled by his students after his death in B.

Aristotle attempted to codify the knowledge into scientific system. His work is best understood as a theoretical study of successful reasoning techniques.

## Logic, Explainability and the Future of Understanding—Stephen Wolfram Writings

Syllogism was Aristotle major reasoning technique to reach a rational conclusion. The syllogism is a set of rules governing what conclusion can be reached from a set of statements written in four statement forms.

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Based on the syllogism, students of Aristotle were able to isolate principles of deductive inference on a restricted form of statements called propositions. A proposition is any statement that can be assigned a truth value. Aristotle approach to logic became sacred, especially in the Middle Ages that no one even considered trying to improve until the seventeenth century.

In unpublished writings, Leibniz expressed his doubt about the perfection of Aristotelian logic. For example, the reader should be Camiliar with induction arguments and be comCortable manipulating logical expressions.

Also the last chapter assumes some acquaintance with the elementary aspects of metric spaces, especially properties oC continuous mappings and compact spaces. Chapter 1 presents the declarative aspects of logic programming.

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## Symbolic Reasoning (Symbolic AI) and Machine Learning

This chapter contains the basic material Crom first order logic and fixpoint theory which will be required. The main concepts discussed here are those oC a logic program, model, correct answer substitution and fixpoint. Also the unification algorithm is discussed in some detail.

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- Foundations of Logic Programming (Symbolic Computation / Artificial Intelligence)?
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Chapter 2 is concerned with the procedural semantics oC logic programs. The main results of this chapter concern the soundness and completeness oC SLD-resolution and the independence oC the computation rule. Chapter 3 discusses negation. The main results of this chapter are the soundness and completeness oC the negation as failure rule.

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